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ANDREW JACKSON


Picture of Andrew Jackson
[Library of Congress]

1767 - 1845

7th President (1829 - 1837)

Biographical Data
Religious Views
Quotations
References, Links, & Further Reading



Education: no formal education

Occupation: lawyer, planter, soldier

Political Affiliation: Democrat

Organizational Affiliation(s): Mason


Religious Affiliation: Presbyterian

Summary of Religious Views:

Jackson was brought up in a Presbyterian family. Although he had little interest in religion early on, Jackson became increasingly religious, eventually joining the Presbyterian church in 1838.

Views on Religion & Politics:

Jackson found no conflict between his religious views and his strong support for the institution of slavery; nor did he perceive any conflict with his support for the forcible relocation of Native Americans.
Jackson believed that the Constitution required a strict separation of church and state.

Quotations:

young Nashville lawyer: "Mr. Cartwright, do you believe there is any such place as hell, as a place of torment?"
Rev. Peter Cartwright: "Yes, I do."
young Nashville lawyer: "Well, I thank God I have too much good sense to believe any such thing."
Andrew Jackson: "Well, sir, I thank God that there is such a place of torment as hell."
young Nashville lawyer: "Why, General Jackson, what do you want with such a place of torment as hell?"
Andrew Jackson: "To put such damned rascals as you are in, that oppose and vilify the Christian religion."
-- date unspecified, from Autobiography of Peter Cartwright

"I trust that the god of Isaac and of Jacob will protect you, and give you health in my abscence, in him alone we ought to trust, he alone can preserve, and guide us through this troublesome world, and I am sure he will hear your prayers. We are told that the prayers of the righteous prevaileth much, and I add mine for your health and preservation untill we meet again." -- letter to his wife, Rachel Jackson, 21 December 1823 (this is typical of Jackson's letters to his wife)

"I could not do otherwise without transcending the limits prescribed by the Constitution for the President and without feeling that I might in some degree disturb the security which religion nowadays enjoys in this country in its complete separation from the political concerns of the General Government." -- letter to the Synod of the Reformed Church of North America, 12 June 1832, explaining his refusal of their request that he proclaim a "day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer."

"Your letter convaying the molancholy intelligence of the death of your dear little babe, has been some time recd -- I tender to you and your dear Mary my heartfelt condolence on this sad & mournful occasion. I am truly happy to find that you both have met this severe bereavement with that christian meekness & submission as was your duty. This charming babe was only given you from your great creator and benefactor, it is probable you doated upon him too much, to the neglect of him who gave the boon, & he has taken him from you, to bring to your view that to him your first love is due, and by this chastisement, to bring you back to your duty to god -- it is to him that we owe all things -- it is he that giveth, and he has a right to take away, and we ought humbly to submit to his will, and be always ready to say, blessed be his name. We have one consolation under this severe bereavement, that this babe is now in the boosom of its saviour, a sweet little angel in heaven, free from all the temptation, pains & evils of this world and we ought to prepare to unite with him & other sorts[saints?] who have gone before us to those mansions of bliss, where the weary are at rest -- Then let us not mourn for the dead but for the living, and prepare to follow him to the mansions of bliss." -- letter to Andrew Jackson Hutchings, 25 January 1835

"I was brought up a rigid Presbeterian, to which I have always adhered. Our excellent constitution guarantees to every one freedom of religion, and charity tells us, and you know Charity is the reall basis of all true religion, and charity says judge the tree by its fruit. all who profess christianity, believe in a Saviour and that by and through him we must be saved. We ought therefor to consider all good christians, whose walk corresponds with their professions, be him Presbeterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, methodist or Roman catholic. let it be remembered by your Grandmother that no established religion can exist under our glorious constitution." -- letter to Ellen Hanson, 25 March 1835

"When I have Suffered sufficiently, the Lord will then take me to himself -- but what are all my sufferings compared to those of the blessed Saviour, who died upon that cursed tree for me, mine are nothing." -- statement made during his final illness, 1 June 1845

"God will take care of you for me. I am my God's. I belong to him, I go but a short time before you, and I want to meet you all in heaven, both white & black.
"What is the matter with my Dear Children, have I alarmed you? Oh, do not cry -- be good children & we will all meet in heaven." -- final words, 8 June 1845

References, Links, & Further Reading: Books, Articles, Links


Books

Works by Andrew Jackson

ed. by Sam B. Smith, et al., The Papers of Andrew Jackson, 7 vols. to date, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1980- The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1825-1828, The Papers of Andrew Jackson, Volume 7, 1829 (Utp Papers Andrew Jackson)
ed. by James W. Ely, Jr., and Theodore Brown, Jr., Legal Papers of Andrew Jackson, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1987
ed. by John Spencer Bassett and Daniel M. Matteson, Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, 7 vols., Carnegie Institution, 1926-1935; reprint (7 vols. in 6), Kraus, 1969

Biographies

James G. Barber, Andrew Jackson: A Portrait Study (National Portrait Gallery), Univ. of Washington Press, 1991
John Spencer Bassett, The Life of Andrew Jackson, 2 vols., Doubleday Page, 1911; reprint, The Life Of Andrew Jackson V1
John M. Belohlavek, Let the Eagle Soar: The Foreign Policy of Andrew Jackson, Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1985
Hendrik Booraem, Young Hickory: The Making of Andrew Jackson, Taylor Trade Publishing, 2001
John Buchanan, Jackson's Way: Andrew Jackson And the People Of The Western Waters, John Wiley & Sons, 2001
Andrew Burstein, The Passions of Andrew Jackson, Knopf, 2003
Donald B. Cole, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson, Univ. of Kansas Press, 1993
James C. Curtis, Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication (Library of American Biography Series), Little, Brown, 1976
Genevieve Foster, Andrew Jackson: An Initial Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951
David S. and Jeanne T. Heidler, Old Hickory's War: Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire, Stackpole Books, 1996
William S. Hoffman, Andrew Jackson and North Carolina Politics, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1958
Marquis James, The Life of Andrew Jackson: The Border Captain, Bobbs-Merrill, 1933
Marquis James, Andrew Jackson-Portrait of a President, Bobbs-Merrill, 1937
Richard B. Latner, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1829-1837, Univ. of Georgia Press, 1979
Jon Meacham, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (New York Times Notable Books) , Random House, 2007
John Parlin, Andrew Jackson: Pioneer and President, The Garrard Press, 1962
James Parton, Life Of Andrew Jackson, 3 vol., Mason Brothers, 1866 Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III
Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Bank War: A Study in the Growth of Presidential Power (Norton Essays in American History.), W W. Norton, 1967
Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Empire, 1767-1821, Harper & Row, 1977
Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832, Harper & Row, 1981
Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845, Harper & Row, 1984
Robert V. Remini, The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal and Slavery (Walter Lynwood Fleming Lectures in Southern History), Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1988
Michael Paul Rogin, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian, Alfred A. Knopf, 1975
Ronald N. Satz, American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era, Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1974
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson, Little, Brown, 1945
Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (Critical Issue), Hill & Wang, 1993
John William Ward, Andrew Jackson: Symbol for an Age, Oxford Univ. Press, 1955

Articles

Joseph Glover Baldwin, "'Representative Men': Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, Part I," Southern Literary Messenger, Vol. 19, Iss. 9, September 1853, pp 521-530
Joseph Glover Baldwin, "'Representative Men': Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, Part II," Southern Literary Messenger, Vol. 19, Iss. 10, October 1853, pp 585-598
Richard Hofstadter, "Andrew Jackson and the Rise of Liberal Capitalism," in The American Political Tradition: The Men Who Made It, Knopf, 1948
Arda S. Walker, "The Religious Views of Andrew Jackson," East Tennessee Historical Society?s Publications, Vol. 17, 1945, pp. 61-70

Links

Works by Andrew Jackson

The Papers of Andrew Jackson (Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
Andrew Jackson: Historic Speeches (Presidential Rhetoric)
Andrew Jackson: Selected Works (Humanities Web)
Document Library (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
First Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Second Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Andrew Jackson letters for the years 1818 thru 1830 (familytales)
President Andrew Jackson's Case for the Removal Act -- First Annual Message to Congress, 8 December 1830 (Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy -- Mt. Holyoke)

Biographical Sites

Andrew Jackson [alternate site] (POTUS)
Andrew Jackson (White House)
JACKSON, Andrew, 1767-1845 (Biographical Directory of the US Congress)
Andrew Jackson (American President)
Andrew Jackson (USA Presidents)
Andrew Jackson (North Carolina Encyclopedia -- State Library of North Carolina)
A brief biography of Andrew Jackson 1767 - 1845 (Hypertext on American History)
Andrew Jackson and the Bankwar (Hypertext on American History)
Jacksonian Politics, 1829-1841 (Historical Text Archive)
Andrew Jackson Speaks: Indian Removal
Andrew Jackson - The Worst President The Cherokee Ever Met (All Things Cherokee)
Andrew Jackson: "Champion of the Kingly Commons" (The Capitol Project)
Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story (Nashville Public Television)
The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson (Medical History of the Presidents of the United States)
Bibliography on Andrew Jackson (Historical Text Archive)

Religious Views

Andrew Jackson from The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents, by Franklin Steiner (Internet Infidels)



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